In the production of meat bone meal, another faction evolves – the industrial animal fat. Industrial fats are divided into three categories depending on their characteristics presented in Table №1. Let us consider in more detail how and where this product was used earlier and is used currently.
For centuries, humanity has been coming in contact with animal fats, and with the growth of technology, the methods of processing fat also make progress. Whereas in the beginning the fat was used besides food just as a protection of exposed skin from freeze burns, soon people learned to render fat and realized that it can be useful in illuminating homes. The peoples of the far north still use this method for their chums and do it as follows: they pour the rendered fat into a stone container and put a twisted moss wick into it.
Not less ancient method of using fat was soap manufacturing process, as per the legend, the discovery belongs to the ancient Romans. On the sacred mountain Sapo they offered sacrifices to gods, they burnt animal carcasses on sacrificial fires, fat was extracted from them by melting, flowing down from the mountain, it mixed with ash and fell into the river Tiber. When rinsing clothes in this place women noticed that it becomes clearer when this mixture gets on it. Later on, people learned to make soap purposefully by mixing the fat with an alkali due to what it started to form lather and took up the form familiar to us. And even after many centuries soap making hasn’t deny animal fat as the soap made this way has excellent detergent properties.
There is another ancient skill which doesn’t go without animal fat – it’s leather making. Leather makers from the earliest times were considered athletes and people composed legends about them, as currying required great physical effort, and not every person could cope with it. In the course of time, people realized that greased leather becomes softer and stronger. Currently, this archaic method is still relevant, though now refined and deodorized fats are used in the process of currying.
In connection with the development of engineering and metalworking, the need arose in various greasing substances that help reduce friction and allow longer heavy-loaded aggregates work longer. Since fat perfectly copes with this task, people produce fat-based greasing substances, such as solid oil.
Glycerol, triatomic alcohol, is also among the derivatives of fat. This useful product is applied in many industries. The first thing that comes to mind at the mention of glycerol is military industry. It is often used for the production of explosives, smokeless powder and cooling gun barrels. Also, glycerol is used as coolant due to its property not to freeze at low temperatures. In tobacco industry glycerol is used for drying tobacco leaves. And even for electronic cigarettes, liquid tobacco is prepared on the base of glycerol. In consumer goods industry glycerol is used to produce varnishes and paints. These are just some the fields of application of this product.
The most modern and advanced means of industrial fat recycling is processing it into bio-diesel fuel. This market segment is growing at an unprecedented rate around the world. Since the addition of bio-diesel to the conventional fuel does not require engine constructive modifications, the implementation of this type of fuel is quite easy.
In Germany today there are more than 2,000 filling stations that sell only this type of fuel. In Sweden, almost every filling station is obliged under the law to have a station with bio-diesel. And the entrance to Stockholm is paid-for for all private vehicles, but free for the drivers of bio-fuel refueling cars.
Animal fat is a valuable resource therefore All-State Standards and methods of standardization of the product were worked out, people learned to clean and blanch fats and to apply it in different spheres of life. But progress forges ahead, industrialization makes us look for more and more new methods of using the product. Nowadays industrial fats firmly occupy the niche, and the mankind will extend its scope of application.
|Item name||Characteristics and rate of fat|
|first grade OKP
92 1982 1130
ОКП 92 1982 1140
|third grade OKP
92 1982 1150
|Colour at temperature 15-20 °C||From matt-white to yellow with different shades||From matt-white to light brown||From matt-white to dark brown|
|Smell||Specific||Specific, not allowed the smell of gasoline|
|Moisture content, %, not more||0,50||0,50||1,50||0,50|
|Acid index, mg KOH, not more||10,00||25,00||not rated||15,00|
|Weight content of unsaponifiables, %, not more||0,75||1,00||1,25||not rated|
|Mass fraction of substances insoluble in ether, %, not more||0,50||1,00||2,00||not rated|
|Fatty acids chilling point, °С, not less||38,0||35,0||32,0||not rated|
|Fat chilling point, °С, not less||not rated||14,00|
|Layering, %, not lessnot rated||not rated||1,00|
|Iodine number, 1g of iodine per 100 g of fat, not less||not rated||65,0|