Food – a product of plant or animal origin destined for the feeding of farm animals and poultry. Protein feed ensure the development, growth rate, body weight and reproductive functions of the animal. They should be eaten well, be as to digest and easily digestible, animal safe.
To carry bulky vegetable feed, characterized by low energy nutritional hay, straw, green forage, silage, root vegetables, melons. And concentrated, which includes grain cereals, legumes and oilseeds, and their by-products (zhomy, cakes, meal, etc.). Concentrates are called because a small amount of energy has a high nutritional value.
For feed of animal origin include by-products obtained from the processing of milk (skim, buttermilk), fish (fish meal), meat (meat bone meal, meat). They contain all the essential amino acids, essential minerals and vitamins, including vitamin B12, which is absent in plant feed. The most common type of animal feed is the meat and bone meal, which regulates the quality of GOST 17536-82.
Among the total number of essential amino acids necessary to pay attention to the most critical (limiting) in the diet.
• lysine (for growth, tissue repair, for the production of antibodies, enzymes, albumins, hormones)
• methionine (a sulfur source in the biosynthesis of cysteine ensures rapid growth, is required for the synthesis of choline, hemoglobin)
• tryptophan (required for the formation of vitamin PP (niacin), to maintain a normal weight, antibody synthesis by plasma cells, and activation of lymphocyte proliferation).
Vegetable proteins less than full-fledged content of essential amino acids, and most are deficient in lysine and threonine. Proteins plant foods difficult to digest, as enclosed in a dense shell of fiber, which prevents the action of digestive enzymes to them. The most complete amino acid composition among the vegetable protein source – is soy. However, soy proteins are deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid necessary not only for the synthesis of proteins and bioactive peptides such as glutathione. The methionine content in soybean is 2 times lower than in animal proteins.
At the same time, ideal for all farm animals and birds do not have protein. Proper diet – a combination of products that allow you to provide the body with sufficient amount of balanced amino acids. The addition of animal feed to the plant increases the bioavailability of the latter, the degree of digestibility and digestibility. As a result, reduced feed consumption per unit of livestock production, increasing the rate of growth, development and body weight of the animal and bird, as well as increasing their productivity.