Questions biowaste recycling


The meat bone meal

The meat bone meal & Industrial animal fat production is based on processing bones & raw meat materials mixture.

It is known that the meat scrap contains complete proteins, fats, vitamins, phosphorous and calcium salts and trace elements, for that reason the processing is paid much attention.

The goal of processing is to get meat bone meal appropriate for the purposes of pigs, poultry and young cattle feeding. Unlike the food of animal origin, plant food is poor in essential & irreplaceable amino acids such as lysine, methionine, cystine.

The meat bone meal (MBM) helps to solve the problem of protein malnutrition as it is the cheapest source of animal protein. It contains many essential B vitamins — Riboflavin (B2), Pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid (PP), Niacin, choline and B12 (cyanocobalamine), and fat-soluble vitamin E, P and carotene (provitamin A).

Possessing of high forage qualities, meat bone meal is transportable and stable during storage.

In the light of the rapid development witnessed by the modern world in different fields of knowledge and science new technologies allowing to solve the problem of fats rancidity have emerged: stabilizers – antioxidants significantly extend the shelf life of products. It must not escape our attention that the fresher the raw material the higher quality of final product is achieved.

In the system of nature conservation and antiepizootic measures, the most important part is the destruction, disposal or processing of dead animals, slaughtering waste and renewable raw materials. In livestock farms, meat processing, fishing industry always formed the biological waste products that are valuable material for the production of feed.

At the same time such wastes are hazardous in sanitary-epidemiological terms, because they are favorable breeding ground for pathogenic microorganisms, the accumulation of chemical toxins and other environmental pollutants. Most infectious agents survive for a long time in animal byproducts.

Considering the danger posed by livestock waste, destruction of biological waste by means of landfill is prohibited. This is associated with long-term survival of pathogens in the environment.

Unwarranted biowaste disposal

Environmental monitoring shows that the lack of specialized processing plants increases in risk of infectious diseases spread. Generally, these vectors are wild animals, birds, insects and rodents.

Specialized processing plant

advantages and disadvantages of the specialized factory

Basic raw materials for the MBM manufacture are the internal organs and waste of the intestines (60-75 %) and different types of bones (40-25%).

The raw material are supplied into the workshop, generally in pre-sorted form. That makes a beneficial impact on meat bone meal and industrial animal fat quality. The raw materials are subjected to heat (steam) for soddening, sterilizing and drying.

As to disposal at the crematorium, it is necessary to deliver the by-products to the place of incineration (crematorium) by a specialized vehicle and to unload raw materials to storage.

Only expenditures connected for upkeep of a single place of biological waste collection amount to at least 1 million rubles a month. Capital costs of the construction amount to not less than 10 million rubles.

Considering all the costs, the prime cost of incineration in the crematorium amounts to at least 12 000 rubles. per ton of biological materials.

Cremation

advantages and disadvantages of cremation

Besides the enormous cost, the burning in the crematorium does not solve the problem of the deterioration of the epizootic situation and does not prevent the spread of pathogens common to both animals and humans. That happens for a number of reasons. Firstly, the by-products are delivered to the crematorium by unspecialized vehicles, not protected against leakage. Secondly, the combustion process may be stopped before reaching the stage of the bottom ash, thus creating a favorable environment for breeding infection. It should be noted that the crematorium deprives the animal of dry food of animal origin, rich in protein.

The European Union is solving this problem by deep processing into feed additives, industrial oils, biodiesel, etc.

Taking into account Russia’s entry into WTO it is wise to use world experience in the destruction of biological waste. This important mission is undertaken by Biotechnological plant “Biotech”. It is processing up to 30 thousand tons of raw material per year. What is more, the quantitative indicators are growing every year.

© A. Smirnov 2016